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Friday, August 08, 2008

Drugs as Medicine to Treatment of Disease

Antihistamines: Antihistamines are used for symptomatic relief from allergic rhinitis (hay fever) including runny nose, sneezing, itching of the nose or throat, and itchy and watery eyes. The anticholinergic effects of antihistamines may cause a thickening of bronchial secretions; therefore, these agents may be counterproductive in respiratory conditions characterized by congestion. Antihistamines may cause drowsiness.

Xanthines: Xanthines, primarily theophylline, relieve bronchial spasm by direct action on the bronchial smooth muscle in bronchospastic conditions such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. Some xanthine-containing combination products are available over-the-counter, but asthmatic patients should use them only under physician supervision.

Sympathomimetics: Sympathomimetics are used for their vasoconstrictor/decongestant or bronchodilator effects.

Decongestants: Decongestants are used for temporary relief of nasal congestion due to colds or allergy. Given orally, they are less effective than topical nasal decongestants and have a potential for systemic side effects. Frequent or prolonged topical use may lead to local irritation and rebound congestion.

Bronchodilators: Ephedrine is common in these combinations; however, it stimulates cardiac (b1) receptors. Bronchodilation is weaker than with the catecholamines: a-adrenergic effects may decrease congestion of mucous membranes. Other b-active agents are effective bronchodilators, but pseudoephedrine is not.

Analgesics: Analgesics (eg, acetaminophen, aspirin, ibuprofen, sodium salicylate) are frequently included for symptoms of headache, fever, muscle aches, and pain.

Anticholinergics: Anticholinergics are included for their drying effects on mucous secretions. This action may be beneficial in acute rhinorrhea; however, drying of respiratory secretions may lead to obstruction. Traditionally, anticholinergics have been avoided in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, some patients respond well to these agents. Caution is still advised in this group. An anticholinergic for oral inhalation is available as a bronchodilator for maintenance of bronchospasm associated with COPD, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Papaverine HCl: Papaverine HCl relaxes the smooth muscle of the bronchial tree and tractus duodenum, this drug mostly use for the diarrhea patients.

Barbiturates: Barbiturates are included for their sedative effects as “correctives” in combination with xanthines or sympathomimetics, which may cause CNS stimulation. The sedative efficacy of low doses (eg, 8 mg phenobarbital) is questionable.

Caffeine: Caffeine is included in some combinations for CNS stimulation to counteract antihistamine depression and to enhance concomitant analgesics.

Barbiturates, prochlorperazine, hydroxyzine, meprobamate, chlordiazepoxide: These components are used as sedatives and antianxiety agents.

Ergotamine tartrate: Ergotamine tartrate provides inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system.

Kaolin: Kaolin is used for its adsorbent properties.

Narcotic analgesics: Codeine, hydrocodone bitartrate, dihydrocodeine bitartrate, opium, oxycodone HCl, oxycodone terephthalate, meperidine HCl, propoxyphene HCl, propoxyphene napsylate.

Nonnarcotic analgesics: Acetaminophen, salicylates, salicylamide. Caffeine, a traditional component of many analgesic formulations, may be beneficial to certain vascular headaches.

Magnesium-aluminum hydroxides and calcium carbonate: Magnesium-aluminum hydroxides and calcium carbonate are used as buffers.

Barbiturates, acetylcarbromal, carbromal, and bromisovalum: Barbiturates, acetylcarbromal, carbromal, and bromisovalum are used for their sedative effects.

Promethazine HCl: Promethazine HCl (a phenothiazine derivative with antihistamine properties) is used for its sedative effect.

Belladonna alkaloids: Belladonna alkaloids are used as an antispasmodic.

Barbiturates, meprobamate, and antihistamines: Barbiturates, meprobamate, and antihistamines are used for their sedative effects.

Antacids: Antacids are used to minimize gastric upset from salicylates.

Caffeine: Caffeine, a traditional component of many analgesic formulations, may be beneficial in treating certain vascular headaches.

Belladonna: Belladonna alkaloids are used as antispasmodics, the medicine which popular for the colic abdominal patients.

Pamabrom: Pamabrom is used as a diuretic.

Cinnamedrine: Cinnamedrine, a sympathomimetic amine claimed to have a relaxant effect in the uterus, is used in products for premenstrual syndrome. Its real value has not been established.

Aminobenzoate: Aminobenzoate retards the conjugation of salicylic acid and prolongs the action of salicylates.

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